SURVEYING EQUIPMENT

■ Traditional instruments
Taking accurate measurements is one of the most important tasks of a land surveyor.
In order to achieve their objective, surveyors use elements of Geometry, Engineering, Trigonometry, Mathematics, Physics and Law. For their activity on the field they must use special equipment.
Pocket tapes are ideal for small-scale measurements while measuring wheels, nylon coated steel tapes and fibreglass tapes can be used for larger distances.
Transits and theodolites are used to measure both horizontal and vertical angles. The importance of transits has been decreasing since more compact, accurate electronic theodolites have become widespread tools.
A compass is usually used when orienting your position on a map or professionally to measure the direction of a survey line with respect to magnetic north-south line.
Levels can be used to read an elevation and determine differences in elevation between two points. These tools can be handheld, optical or digital, and are typically used in conjunction with levelling rods or tripods.

■ Modern instruments

A total station is a theodolite with an electronic distance measurement device (EDM). Today, total stations are equipped with an on-board computer and specialized software. Modern total stations can send survey data to the office computer via email and connect to the Global Positioning System (GPS)* .

GPS is a worldwide navigational and surveying technology based on the reception of signals from a group of orbiting satellites.

RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) is a GPS surveying method where one receiver is fixed and the other, called ‘rover’, is moving. The most typical procedure is a ‘stop and go’ technique.

3D laser scanners are very useful in architectural design and the building industry when conducting detailed surveys of complex building structures.

Drones (also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAV) represent an efficient supplement to traditional survey methods and can be used for preparation of site plans and topographic maps.

5 Answer these questions.
1. What subjects do surveyors take elements from for their calculations?
2. If you need a small-scale measurement, what tool would you use?
3. What instruments are necessary for larger distances?
4. What can be measured with transits and theodolites?
5. Why is a compass useful in a surveying activity?
6. What are levels used for?
7. What kind of levels can be used?
8. What is a total station?
9. What does the acronym GPS mean?
10. What is meant by RTK?
11. What instrument is very useful in architectural design and building industry?
12. Why have drones recently become a useful instrument in surveying?
6 Match the words with the right definition.

1. fibreglass
 
   
a. Mathematical science concerned with the
measurement of lines, angles, curves and shapes.
2. measuring wheel
 
    b. Distance of something above the ground.
3. Geometry
 
    c. Type of drawing used by architects.
4. elevation
 
    d. Entire set of programs associated with a computer system.
5. tripod
 
    e. Graduated wooden or aluminium pole.
6. level rod
 
    f. Strong, light material made from small threads of glass and plastic.
7. software
 
    g. Piece of equipment with three legs, usually used for supporting a camera.
8. site plan
 
    h. Instrument which is rolled along a surface.
7 Read this passage and fill in the gaps with the words below. Be careful, there are two extra words.


applications • calculations • data • device • expert • field • investment • locations • millions • remote • surveying • technology


DRONES, NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEYING

These small, ultra-light aircraft can be piloted by 1. .......................................... control and can take detailed survey information while simultaneously transmitting that 2. .......................................... back to the head office. There are a number of reasons why drones are an ideal addition to any land 3. .......................................... project and can increase accuracy and return on 4. ........................................... By acquiring data from the sky – in the form of geo-referenced digital aerial images – a surveyor can gather 5. .......................................... of data points in one short flight. With collection made so simple, an 6. .......................................... can focus energy on using and analysing data, rather than working on the 7. ........................................... Today the use of commercial drones for land surveying has become common practice. Drones capture data that can be used in a wide variety of mapping 8. .........................................., from cadastral surveying to volumetric 9. ...........................................

Beyond that, it becomes much easier to reach difficult 10. .......................................... with drones. This makes using drones significantly safer in certain situations.

8 Write a text listing all the surveying instruments that are usually used to carry out surveying tutorials or in-the-field experiences with your topography teacher and describe the procedures of the survey.

9 Prepare and give a short oral presentation of the survey to your teacher and the class.

Landmarks
Landmarks
Libro digitale in formato "liquido"