■ What is meant by ‘surveying’?

Surveying is the science of making measurements to establish the relative position of points above, on or beneath the surface of the earth. It includes the determination of the measurement data and their reduction and interpretation in a usable form. Surveying has two main purposes:

• the determination of the existing relative horizontal and vertical position, which is used for the process of mapping;

• the establishment of marks to control construction or to indicate land boundaries.

■ Different types of surveying

Land (or cadastral) surveying deals with the determination of land boundaries for legal purposes and land ownership.

Topographic surveying refers to the mapping of the earth’s surface by aerial, photogrammetric or ground surveys, or a combination of these methods, with locations of any natural site features or man-made improvements.

As-built surveying provides an assessment of a site at a particular point during or after the construction work. It serves as a basis upon which any changes can be recorded and as an essential reference document for anyone working in that area in the future. The purpose of an as-built survey is to confirm to local and state authorities that the construction work authorized has been completed according to the building regulations.

As-built surveys can be required for nearly every type of land project, from roads to building construction.

Hydrographic surveying consists of the preparation of nautical charts and maps of the marine environment and seabed.

Mining surveying is connected with above-ground open mines and belowground mines and tunnels.

Geodetic surveying is concerned with very high precision measurement of the earth’s surface for the determination of latitude and longitude .

1 Read the first paragraph and answer the questions.
1. What is meant by ‘surveying’?
2. How can measurement data be utilized?
3. What are the two main purposes of surveying?

2 Complete the table with the missing information.

   Type of surveying Aims of surveying 
Topographic surveying

utilized during a construction project or after the construction has been completed
3. Hydrographic surveying

4. Land surveying
measurement of the earth’s surface for the determination of latitude and longitude
mines and tunnels

3 Match the words to the definitions.
1. aerial

  a. relating to law
2. assessment

  b. a place where something is built
3. improvement

  c. related to measurements by the use of photographs
4. legal

  d. operating from an elevated position
5. photogrammetric

  e. evaluation
6. site

  f. the state of being better than before
4 The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Listen to the text and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. The value of the land is a very important
matter for the local and global economy.

2. Land Surveying as a profession requires
a Professional Licence.
 ☐ ☐ 
3. The land surveyor license is issued
by private organisations.

4. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
was founded in London in 1768.

5. The RICS main office is in London
but it has other offices around
the world.

6. The RICS qualified surveyors work
in more than 200 countries.

7. The RICS works with public institutions.

8. The RICS international standards do
not support the real-estate market.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines hydrography as “the branch of applied science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the navigable portion of the earth’s surface [seas and oceans] and adjoining coastal areas, with special reference to their use for the purpose of navigation”.
Surveyors pay particular attention to warn mariners of dangers to navigation, and they record the precise location of aids to navigation. They also record tide or water level measurements. Surveys can also determine sea floor material (i.e. sand, mud, rock), which is important for anchoring, structure construction, pipeline and cable routing, and fish habitat.

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