INNOVATION IN DESIGN

■ Computer-aided design (CAD)*

This graphic technology has been available on the market since the beginning of the 1980s, changing the way of designing in the construction field. Before computer-aided design (CAD), drafting boards, pencils, rules, compasses and T-squares were the tools of a designer. Now programs such as AutoCAD enable architects, engineers and other professionals to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models of buildings. Since its release, AutoCAD has become the most widely used CAD program in the world because of its complete set of drafting tools. AutoCAD allows designers to visually design and explore any conceptual design ideas, modify designs using 3D design tools, transform designs into 3D renderings, and turn them into animated presentations.

■ Building Information Modelling (BIM)

Building Information Modelling (or BIM)* expands the three primary spatial dimensions (width, height and depth) with time as the fourth dimension (4D) and cost as the fifth (5D). BIM is one of the most recent innovations in the construction industry, because BIM data can be used to explain the entire building life-cycle. BIM is a process for creating and managing all of the information on a project – before, during and after construction – imitating the real building process. The output of this process is the Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the construction.

■ Rendering

For most projects, 3D visualization can give architects and clients a real idea of what the structure will look like, presenting precise dimensions, creating images and animations which show the features of an architectural design. For this reason, rendering computergenerated programs is becoming a strategic support for most professionals, creating realistic photo models of the designed solution and having it presented to the client – this way, the clients will know exactly what they are getting.

5 Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F) and correct the false ones.


  T F
1. AutoCAD has been available on the
market for more than 30 years.


2. Before AutoCAD, designers used
to draw with different tools.


3. AutoCAD is used to create only 2D
models of buildings.


4. AutoCAD is not widely used.


5. AutoCAD allows designers to transform
designs.


6. BIM and AutoCAD are the same building
design software.


7. BIM adds two more dimensions
to the three primary spatial dimensions.


8. BIM provides all the necessary
information about the building.


9. It is impossible to create animation
with rendering programmes.


10. Rendering computer-generated programs
is essential supports only for clients.


6 Match the terms with the suitable definitions.
1. compasses   ☐   a. a person who has a job that requires advanced education or training
2. tool   ☐   b. v-shaped instrument that you use for drawing circles
3. professional   ☐   c. a computer program
4. description   ☐   d. the use of drawings that appear to move in films
5. software   ☐   e. a piece of equipment that you use with your hands
6. animation   ☐   f. an account which explains what a thing looks like

7 Listen to the explanation of the differences between CAD and BIM and fill in the text with the missing words.


applications • changes • construction • data • design • drawing • manually • model • process • project • systems • windows


BIM and CAD represent two different approaches to building 1. ........................................... CAD (Computer- Aided Design) applications imitate the traditional “paper and pencil” 2. ........................................... CAD drawings, similarly to traditional paper 3. ..........................................., are created independently from each other, so design 4. ........................................... need to be followed up and realised 5. ........................................... on each CAD drawing. BIM (Building Information Modelling) 6. ........................................... imitates the real building process. Buildings are virtually modelled from real 7. ........................................... elements such as walls, 8. ..........................................., roofs, etc. Since all data are stored in the central virtual model, design changes are automatically followed up on individual drawings generated from the 9. ............................................ BIM models contain all the building information including 10. ........................................... related to the different engineering disciplines such as load-bearing structures and technical 11. ............................................ Cost is also part of BIM and allows us to see what the estimated cost of a 12. ........................................... might be at any given point in the time during the construction.

8 Use some drawings you prepared at school with CAD or BIM applications and explain the process to your schoolmates and teacher.

AUTOCAD
In 1982, John Walker founded Autodesk, which launched its CAD software (AutoCAD) for the PC in the same year. Three years later, the software expanded to offering 3D modelling, and in 1992, AutoCAD was made available for Windows.

Landmarks
Landmarks
Libro digitale in formato "liquido"