2  MAPPING

MAPS

■ What is a map?

Simply defined, maps are pictures of the Earth’s surface, each map shows different information. Most maps include a compass rose* , which indicates which way is north, south, east and west. They also include a scale (usually shown with a bar) so you can estimate distances.

■ Types of maps

Physical maps illustrate the physical features of an area, such as the mountains, rivers and lakes. Colours are used to show different landscapes.

Water is usually shown in blue, green is typically used for plains, and orange or brown indicate hills and mountains.

Political maps indicate states and national boundaries, the capital and major cities. A capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.

Road maps* show major motorways and roads, airports, railroad tracks, cities and other points of interest in an area.

Topographic maps include contour lines to show the shape and elevation of an area. Lines that are close together indicate steep terrain and lines that are far apart indicate flat terrain.

Thematic maps emphasize a particular theme or special topics, for example, political, cultural or agricultural features of an area.

Economic or resource maps show the specific type of economic activity or natural resources present in an area through the use of different symbols or colours.

Climate maps show information about the climate of an area based on the temperature, the amount of snow and rain that an area receives or average number of cloudy or sunny days in a month or year.

Weather maps show what the current weather in an area is and what the weather in that area will be in the coming hours or days.

Cadastral maps show the accurate measures of the boundaries and ownership of each property.

■ Who creates maps?

Mapmakers, called cartographers, create maps for many different purposes.

Today, cartography is a mixture of art, science and technology. Cartographers use geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse and create maps and charts for political, cultural and educational purposes.

1 Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

  T F
1. You can use a topographic map when
you want road information.


2. If you want to know precise measures
about boundaries and properties, you
need a cadastral map.


3. You are preparing a research about the
growing population in India, a thematic
map is what you need.


4. What’s the weather like today? You want
to check the climate map on the weather
forecast app of your mobile.


5. I don’t know the name of the capital
city of Finland, but I can find it on a
political map of Europe.


6. On the economic map of Italy
in our classroom, the Alps are shown
in brown.


7. ‘Russia has the largest production
of natural gas in the world’ says the
resource map in my geography book.


8. You should check a weather map to
choose the best season to go to the
Caribbean on holiday.


2 Write the questions for the following answers.
1. ....................................................................................................................
Water is usually shown in blue, green is typically used for plains, and orange or brown indicate hills and mountains.
2. ....................................................................................................................
A capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.
3. ....................................................................................................................
Lines that are close together indicate steep terrain and lines that are far apart indicate flat terrain.
4. ....................................................................................................................
A specific type of economic activity or natural resources.
5. ....................................................................................................................
Cartographers use geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems.

3 Listen to a cartographer briefly describing some elements of maps and decide what category they belong to.
1. .............................................
2. .............................................
3. .............................................
4. .............................................
5. .............................................
6. .............................................
7. .............................................
8. .............................................

Landmarks
Landmarks
Libro digitale in formato "liquido"